Foot and Mouth Disease is a severe highly contagious viral disease of livestock that has a significant economic impact. The disease affects cattle, swine, sheep, goats and other cloven hoofed ruminants. It is a transboundary animal disease that deeply affect the production of livestock and disrupting regional and international trade in animal and animal products.
Foot and Mouth Disease is an acute febrile highly contagious disease, characterized by vesicular eruptions in the epithelial of buccal cavity ,tongue, muzzle , feet ,teats and udder.
FMD is a severe highly contagious viral disease of cattle and swine. It also affects sheep, goats, deer, and other animals. The disease spreads very quickly if not controlled and because of its reportable nature. Intensively reared animals are more susceptible to the disease than traditional breeds.
- Incubation period is 2 to 8days.
- Fever from 104 to 106 °F.
- Dejection and Apathy to food and water
- Reduction in Milk yield.
- Formation of vehicles on oral mucosa interdigital space and udder.
- In later stages, Reduction of temperature, profuse salivation and lameness.
- Drooling of foamy ,ropy salivation, protrusion of tongue.
- Erosion and ulceration of oral mucosa and tongue.
- Vesicles produce severe pain, lameness mastitis.
Usually blisters heal within 7 days sometimes longer but complications such as secondary bacterial infection of open blisters can also occur. Frequent symptoms are fever, depression, hypersalivation,loss of appetite, weight loss,growth retardation and a drop in Milk production, which can persist even after recovery. Chronically affected animals are reported to have an overall reduction of 80% in Milk yield.
The organism which causes FMD is an apthovirus of the family Picornaviridae .There are seven strains (A, O, C, SAT1 ,SAT2 , SAT3 ,and Asia 1 ) which are endemic in different countries worldwide.
TRANSMISSION AND SPREAD
FMD is found in all excretion and secretions from infected animals. Notably, these animals breathe out a large amount of aerosolised virus,which can infect other animals via the respiratory or oralmroutes. The virus may be present in Milk and seven for upto 4days before the animal shows clinical signs of disease.,
Homeopathy has been found one of the best holistic and safest treatments for man, animals and plants as well. Veterniary Homoeopathy is a safe effective and powerful form of medicine, uses the principle discovered and developed by Dr Samuel Hahnemann in Saxony during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
Animal Homoeopathy is growing in popularity and many doctors and veterinarians across the world are using Homoeopathy for animals. Most veterinarians choose Homoeopathy due to the chronic and recurring nature of many ailments. The idea behind using Homoeopathy is to strengthen the immunity of the animals and the disease from the roots. Saving animals from the hazardous side effects of conventional medicines and giving them a healthier life. Veterniary Homoeopathy is surely a great act of kindness that we can offer as homoeopaths.
HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINES FOR FMD
- Aconite: During the onset of the disease.
- Antim crudum: suitable to rough coated thick skinned animals, having a tendency to develop horny callosities with yellowish ulcers.
- Arsalb: Fever with restlessness, prostration and Thirst for small quantities at frequent intervals.
- Borax : Sensitive to sudden noises. Aphthae in Buccal mucosa.
- Foot and Mouth Nosode : prepared from the virus collected from the ongoing outbreaks will act best as a preventive and curative.
- Hepar sulph: When suppuration has progressed. ( Hepar sulph follows Merc sol well ).
- Kali iod ; Effective as a preventive remedy for neighbouring animals.
- Merc sol ; Chief remedy for Foot and Mouth Disease. Saliva slimy with ulcers on the tongue, gums and oral mucosa. Gums spongy. Mastitis. Udder vesicles.
- Natrum carb : for panting ,debility, exhaustion. Anemia and great weakness of limbs seen as sequence to FMD has been cured by this drug.
- Natrum mur: Intensive thirst with foot lesions. When there is debility and weakness and can be given . It follows Rhus tox
- Nitric acid: Ulcers and indurations in the mucocutaneous junctions ( lips ,vaginally lips ,teat, sphincter).
- Ranunculus Bulbosus : Effective for treatment of Vesicles on udder and teats.
- Rhus Tox : for stiffness of limbs and foot lesions.
- Silicea: Wound slow to heal . Wounds at pressure points. Bedsore points.
- Variolinum : Effective as preventive in alternation with other remedies. As a preventive two doses. One week apart, limits the development of the disease.
- Calendula tincture + Echinacea tincture : sprayed on wounds on foot.
- Hydrastis tincture: as mouthwash helps quick healing
- Ferrum phos 6X + Kali mur 6X: When there is Pyrex and respiratory signs .
- Five phos 6X + Alfalfa 6 + Ipecac 30 : for speedy recovery.
- Castor equi: helps in hardening the soft hooves ,but reduces the Milk yield. Hence Calc phos 200 is used along with this.
DR. PRATHIBHA. K. JOY BHMS MSc DFSM